How Do Pre-Kindergartners Spend Their Time? Gender, Ethnicity and Income as Predictors of Experiences in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms

Early, D. M., Iruka, I. U., Ritchie, S., Barbarin, O. A., Winn, D-M. C., Crawford, G. M., Frome, P. M., Clifford, R. M., Burchinal, M., Howes, C., Bryant, D. M., & Pianta, R. C.
2010

This paper considers how children spend their time in state-funded prekindergarten programs and how time use relates to ehtnicity, gender, and family income, based on the assumption that how time is spent in prekindergarten is relevant for the programs' success in narrowing achievement gaps. Classroom observations of 2061 children in 652 pre-k programs in 11 states were analyzed. Children in classes with lower proportions of Latino and African American children and higher income-to-needs ratios were generally engaged in richer and more stimulating experiences.

Citation: Early, D. M., Iruka, I. U., Ritchie, S., Barbarin, O. A., Winn, D-M. C., Crawford, G. M.,...Pianta, R. C. (2010). How do pre-kindergartners spend their time? Gender, ethnicity and income as predictors of experiences in pre-kindergarten classrooms. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25, 177-193.