Internalizing Behaviors and Hyperactivity/Inattention: Consequences for Young Struggling Readers, and Especially Boys

Garwood, J. D., Varghese, C., & Vernon-Feagans, L.

From the abstract: "Although evidence of negative associations between early literacy development and children’s behavior problems exists, the field still lacks an understanding of the complicated links between these two areas. Children’s gender has often not been included in much of the extant research as a potential moderating variable, yet gender differences may provide insights into the nuanced relationship  between early literacy development and maladaptive behaviors. Results from the current study of 472 kindergarten and first-grade children suggested that compared with nonstruggling  readers, teachers rated struggling readers as higher  on internalizing behaviors and hyperactivity/ inattention, but not externalizing behaviors, when accounting for children’s socioeconomic status. Furthermore, higher levels of internalizing behaviors and hyperactivity/ inattention in struggling readers predicted lower reading scores at the end of the school year across a variety of domains, but these negative effects were more prominent for young boys. Implications for early intervention are discussed."

Citation: Garwood, J. D., Varghese, C., & Vernonā€Feagans, L. (2017). Internalizing behaviors and hyperactivity/inattention: Consequences for young struggling readers, and especially boys. Journal of Early Intervention, 39, 218-235.
DOI: 10.1177/1053815117706524