From the abstract: "We examined performance-based laboratory tasks and ratings-based assessments of executive function (EF) in school-aged children with Down syndrome and mental-age matched peers along with adaptive functioning. Methods: A battery of assessments including EF laboratory tasks was collected. Results: The DS group performed both working memory/inhibition and planning laboratory tasks with significant challenges. Moderate correlations were evident only between some laboratory tasks and ratings-based EF domains. However, ratings-based EF better predicted adaptive function than performance on an EF laboratory-based task. Conclusions: Findings underscore the need to address early and targeted EF intervention in children with DS."
Daunhauer, L. A., Gerlach-McDonald, B., Will, E., & Fidler, D. J. (2017). Performance and ratings based measure of executive function in school-aged children with Down syndrome. Developmental Neuropsychology, 42, 351-368.