This study examined the effects of Smart Start on the quality of child care over time in North Carolina. Results from 3 waves of data collection (in 1994, 1996, and 1999) show that child care quality has increased over time, and participation in Smart Start is a factor.
Bryant, D., Bernier, K., Peisner-Feinberg, E., & Maxwell, K. (2002). Smart Start and child care in North Carolina: Effects on quality and changes over time. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute.